STDs, commonly known as sexually transmitted diseases, are infections that spread from one person to another via sexual contact. In 2020, around 30 million adults in India were diagnosed with STDs.
Although STDs are quite widespread, they are rarely publicly discussed in Indian society. There is a lot of stigmas attached to it, and individuals who do have STDs are often shamed.
It is past time that we learned more about STDs and eradicated the stigma associated with them.
Here are some fascinating facts to know before being sexually engaged with someone:
How many different kinds of STDs are there?
Did you know that there are over 35 different forms of STDs? Human Papillomavirus (HPV), herpes, syphilis, hepatitis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are the most prevalent STDs that we are aware of, however, there are many more STDs in the globe.
Some of these STDs can also be transmitted through non-sexual behaviours such as blood transfusions.
What are the symptoms of STIs?
Many people are caught STIs by surprise. However, it is critical to safeguard your sexual health. Keep an eye out for any bodily changes, no matter how slight they appear. Seek medical advice to help you understand them.
Consult your doctor if you are suffering any of the signs of an STI.
They can treat your illness or prescribe medicines to alleviate any symptoms or issues you may be experiencing. They can also advise you on how to decrease your chances of contracting an STI in the future.
The severity of STI symptoms can range from moderate to severe. The following are some of the most frequent STD symptoms:
- Changes in urination
- Burning or itching in the vaginal area
- Abnormal vaginal discharge or bleeding
- Pain in the pelvic or abdominal region
- Pain during sex
- Unusual discharge from the penis
Who is more prone to STDs?
Women are naturally more prone to STDs than males because the vaginal area is bigger and more accessible to sexual fluids. It is critical to treat STDs since they can progress to illnesses such as pelvic inflammatory disease.
Women can reduce their chance of contracting an STD by using female condoms or requesting that their partners wear condoms as well. The danger of contracting an STD can never be completely removed.
Can STDs be cured?
If treated early enough, bacterial STDs can be curable with antibiotics. Viral STDs cannot be cured, although symptoms can be managed with medicines. There is a hepatitis B vaccination, but it will not assist you if you already have the condition.
What are incurable STDs?
Most STDs are treatable with antibiotics or antiviral medicines. However, there are four incurable STDs
- Hepatitis B
These infections, while incurable, can be controlled with therapy and medicines.
Are STDs treatable?
Some STIs can be cured, while others cannot. Consult your doctor about treatments and preventive actions to help reduce your chance of transmission.
Certain STIs can be treated by doctors. The following are some examples:
- Antibiotics are used to treat Chlamydia.
- Antibiotics can be used to treat gonorrhoea. However, certain drug-resistant strains of the bacteria have developed, which may not respond to standard therapies and may be more difficult to treat.
- Antibiotics can be used to treat syphilis. The medicine prescribed by your doctors is dictated by the stage of syphilis.
- To treat trichomoniasis, doctors may give the antibiotics metronidazole or tinidazole.
Some diseases cannot be cured, but therapies can assist to alleviate their symptoms. Herpes and HPV are two examples of STIs in this group.
Doctors will prescribe medicines to shorten an outbreak of herpes. These are referred to as antivirals. Some patients use these drugs regularly to help minimise the chances of an epidemic occurring.
There are no particular therapies available for HPV-induced genital warts. They may, however, give topical medicines or undertake procedures to aid in the shrinking or removal of lesions.
What are the STDs in men?
Many men with a penis believe that if they had a sexually transmitted illness or infection (STD or STI), they would be aware of it.
While the majority of STDs and STIs cause symptoms, many are readily misdiagnosed as other illnesses. In other situations, no symptoms are present.
Understanding the dangers and symptoms of common STIs in men and persons with a penis is critical for everyone who engages in sexual activity.
- Hepatitis A
- Hepatitis B
Can STDs cause infertility?
Untreated STDs can cause infertility. This occurs more frequently in women than in males. Untreated Gonorrhea and Chlamydia can spread to the fallopian tube and render a woman infertile, preventing her from conceiving.
Untreated STDs can also cause infertility in men. As a result, it is critical to get frequent checks and to treat diseases without shame.
Which sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are asymptomatic?
Some STDs are asymptomatic, which means that a person might be infected and be unaware of it. There are no obvious signs to assist the doctor in diagnosing the illness. Herpes and chlamydia might go undiagnosed since they don’t always cause symptoms.
Can STDs be transmitted through any form of sexual activity?
Although condoms are the second-best approach to protect oneself from STDs after abstinence, they cannot provide 100% protection.
When engaging in any sort of sexual activity, whether oral, anal, or vaginal, you should use a condom. It is always better to be safe than sorry, therefore use protection at all times.
Can STDs harm unborn children and infants?
Even if they have no symptoms, pregnant women should be checked for STDs since some STDs, such as HIV and hepatitis B, can be passed down to unborn children. Some STDs can induce birth problems, such as preterm birth, stillbirth, and low birth weight.
If STDs are discovered during pregnancy, physicians can treat the infection. If the mother is HIV positive, the doctor may recommend that the baby be delivered through caesarean section.
What are the STDs with discharge?
Vaginal discharge is very much normal however if there is abnormal discharge that may indicate the possibility of STIs. Only a few STDs have been shown to affect vaginal discharge. There are three such STDs:
- Trichomoniasis (or “trich”)
What are the STDs that affect lips and cause sore throat?
HSV-1 has the ability to infect the lips, mouth, throat, genitals, rectum, and anus. Oral herpes symptoms include blisters or sores (also known as cold sores) on the mouth, lips, and throat. This is a chronic disease that can spread even when no symptoms are present.
STD Vs STI
STD is an abbreviation for sexually transmitted disease, whereas STI is an abbreviation for sexually transmitted infection. The distinction is essentially between a disease and an infection. Infections do not cause all diseases, but they do cause a large number of diseases. Sexually transmitted infections are the precursors to sexually transmitted diseases.
How much do STD tests cost?
These tests can be either carried individually or as a group. The cost of the test is entirely dependent upon the number of STIs tests you are getting done. Test for Syphilis can cost you ₹ 2500 while herpes with no symptoms can cost you ₹ 3500. The cost for a test carried out in a group can vary from ₹ 7500-30000.